What is Wine?
I had made a promise to myself that I would try to make more food and drinks blogs. And these wine blogs have been i my drafts for too long. why? i feel like wine is really complex and wide. it is a tricky topic but then @Afrobloggers #afrobloggers ran a #releaseyourdrafts campaign and here we are. July is my wine month this year. Maybe at the end of July, I would have convinced you to give wine a chance. I know nothing about wines but I am sure of one thing, I love wine. But there is just so much to read and understand about wine so.. I figured what are those little things I would love to know about wine. I don’t want to be completely naïve and bleak. Also, to avoid the whole confusion as you read the blogs. So, here are some cheat – codes to knowing wines. Simple but abit detailed blogs about wine. And today, this blog is bringing to light a few wine terminologies that you should know as a starter or a beginner in the wine world.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made with the fermented juice of grapes. Any fruit is can be used to make wine for example, apples, cranberries, plums. But if the bottle says wine then it is definitely squeezed from wine grapes ( these are different from the normal grapes ).
So the wine grapes!?
Wine grapes are quite different and can be set apart from the other table grapes. They are smaller, sweeter, and have alot of seeds. Most wines come from a single species of vine that originated in the Caucasus called Vitis vinifera.
Acidity: There are numerous types of acids that are found in all wines. They include citric, tartaric, malic, and lactic. Wine from hot climates tend to be lower in acidity. Wines from cooler climates are higher in acidity.
Acidic: Every wine requires some acidity. This quality makes a wine feel fresh, or give it lift. Too much acidity makes a wine taste sour and feel sharp, lean or angular. Not enough acidity will make a wine feel flabby.
Aftertaste: This is one of the top components that make a wine great. The length of time a wine spends in your mouth once you’ve finished tasting it, is what we pay to find in a wine. That memorable taste. Aftertaste means the same thing as length, finish or end note.
aeration — the deliberate addition of oxygen to round out, soften a wine and to help its perfume become more noticeable
aging // age — holding wine in barrels, tanks, and bottles to advance them to a more desirable state
anosmia — the loss of smell
astringent — tasting term noting the harsh, hard, sharp or bitter and drying sensations in the mouth caused by high levels of tannin. This happens because most of the time because the tannins in a wine did not fully ripen.
Aggressive: An aggressive wine is usually too high in acidity. The term can also be used to describe wines with hard noticeable tannins. I’d like to think of it as a wild taste or a firm.
Angular: Angular wines are lean. They are the opposite of round or fleshy.
Anthocyannins: Pigments that give red wine its color.
Aroma: Aroma is used to describe the scent of a wine.
Assemblage: French term for the grape varieties used to blend a wine.
Attack: The initial taste of a wine in the mouth.
Austere: These kinds of wines are hard, lacking charm or roundness. Some wines that taste austere in their young shed that quality when they age but sometimes they don’t.
Alcohol: Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, the by product of the fermentation process.
balance — a term for when the elements of wine – acids, sugars, tannins, and alcohol – come together in a harmonious way, all the components seamlessly blend together. . Balance is one of the key traits all great wines share, regardless of where they come from.
barrel // Barrique — the oak container used for fermenting and aging wine
Barrel Fermented: Wines that were vinified in barrel instead of vats or tanks. This takes place more often with white wines.
Barrel Tasting: When a taster tries a wine before it has been bottled.
bitter :a taste sensation that is sensed on the back of the tongue and caused by tannins
body — a tactile sensation describing the weight, feel and fullness of wine in the mouth. A wine can be light, medium, or full bodied for example, Full bodied wines are normally high in alcohol.
botrytis — a beneficial mold that pierces the skin of grapes and causes dehydration, resulting in natural grape juice exceptionally high in sugar. Botrytis is largely responsible for the world’s finest dessert wines. (see “noble rot”)
bouquet — a term that refers to the complex aromas in aged wines other than the grape or berry aromas in the wine.
brilliant — a tasting note for wines that appear sparkling clear
brut — french term denoting dry champagnes or sparkling wines
bung — the plug used to seal a wine barrel
Backward: Backwards is used to define a wine that is tight, closed in or reserved. This means the aromatic and other qualities in the wine are not available to the taster. This is a common characteristics among young wines.
Barnyard: Wines with this aroma are best described as earthy, with animal scents that remind tasters of a barn // farm. In small doses, this can be a positive trait. In large amounts, this is a defect. This can be caused by a natural aromas that develop with bottle age, or in the worst cases from wines that were made in unclean barrels or facilities.
Beefy // Brawny: A muscular styled wine.
Big: A big wine is one that is filled with ample amounts of ripe, normally alcoholic fruit. If the wine is in balance with the other flavors then this is not a issue.
Blend: When one or more grape varieties is used to produce the wine.
Blind Tasting: The identity of the wine is hidden from the taster. In theory, this allows for an unbiased evaluation of the wine. Single blind means the type of wine is known to the taster, but not the specific wine. Double blind means, the taster has no prior information on the wine.
Bold: Red wine with dark color, high alcohol, with concentration and intensity, that is usually in a forward style.
Bottle age: All quality wines need to be aged in the bottle before being opened. For some wines, this could be a few years. Other wines might require 30 years or more to become mature.
Breathe: When you allow a wine to breathe, you are giving it air, which improves the perfume and the texture of the wine.
Bricking // browning : When red wines mature or age, they lighten in color and change from purple, to dark red, to to orange and then finally brown like a brick.
Bright: A term used for acidic red fruits.
Brooding: Wines that are brooding offer dark colors with intense concentration of flavor.
Bud burst // bud break. : Term for when the vines begin to produce their first new shoots for the growing season. This takes place in the spring season.
bung hole — the opening in a cask in which wine can be put in or taken out
chaptalization — adding sugar to wine before or during fermentation to increase alcohol levels.
citric acid — one of the three predominate acids in wine
closed — term describing underdeveloped and young wines whose flavors are not exhibiting well
complex — a wine exhibiting numerous odors, nuances, and flavors
cork taint — undesirable aromas and flavors in wine often associated with wet cardboard or moldy basements
Cluster: A bunch of grapes.
Concentrated: Concentrated is the opposite of light. Concentrated wines display a wealth of fruit, richness and depth of flavor, as well as raw materials.
Concentrator: Machine that removes excess water from grapes to help concentrate the wine.
Creamy: When has the rich texture of cream.
Crisp: Similar to bright. Fruit that is crisp is usually high in acidity.
corked — a term that denotes a wine that has suffered cork taint (not wine with cork particles floating about)
demi-sec — french term meaning “half-dry” used to describe a sweet sparkling wine
Decadent: They are rich, sexy, opulent wines with mouth coating textures.
Decanting: Decanting is the practice of pouring wine from a bottle into a larger container. While special decanters for wine can be purchased, even an everyday pitcher will work fine. Decanting is done for two reasons. Removal of sediment from older wines, or to allow air into a young wine, for the purpose of allowing them to soften in texture and display more aromatics.
Delicate: Light wines are delicate. . It is better suited for some white wines and Pinot Noir.
Delestage: French term to describe the part of the wine making process when the wine is racked and returned during vinification. During delestage, the wine is moved from the fermentation vessel and put back over the cap to keep it moist and to help gain more raw material for color and flavor.
Dense: Dense wines are filled with high levels of raw material giving the wine concentration.
Depth: Wines with depth has layers of flavor and concentration making the wine feel deep. This is equals good quality.
Dessert Wine: dessert wines are wines high in alcohol ranging from 14% to 24% alcohol.
Destemming: is the removal of the grapes from the stems.
Desuckering:The process of removing shoots that are not fruit bearing.
Double Blind: When wines are double tasted double blind, no information of any type is given to the tasters.
Double Decanting: Double decanting is the act of pouring wine from the bottle into a decanter. Washing the bottle out with clean water to remove any sediment and then pouring the wine back into the original bottle. This adds twice as much into a wine, than ordinary decanting.
Dry Wine: Dry wines are red or white wines where all the residual sugar has been fermented.
Drying Out: When a wine is drying out, it is losing its fruit.
Dumb: Wines that are dumb have little to offer. They are closed.
dry — a taste sensation often attributed to tannins and causing puckering sensations in the mouth; the opposite of sweet
Earthy: This indicates that the wine has “earthy” odors or flavors reminiscent of damp soil, forest floor, mushrooms, or wet leaves.
Effeuillage French term for the removal of the lower leaves from the vines that will allow more sun to hit the grapes directly, which will aid in the ripening of the fruit.
Elegant: Wines with elegance are in balance with soft, refined characteristics and textures.
Elevage: French term for the time a wine spends ageing in barrel.
Echantillon : French term for sample bottle used most often with barrel samples.
Endnote: is similar to end or finish. It is the sensation of flavors your palate experiences long after you have already enjoyed and swallowed the wine in your glass. The longer the endnote or finish, in most cases, the better the wine.
Exotic: Positive term used to denote unique, opulent textures of a special nature that are only found in the best of wines, in select vintages.
Expansive: Wines that expand their range of flavors and textures especially in the finish.
Extract: The raw materials found in a wine that is not water, sugar, alcohol or acidity. These raw materials make up the actual soul of the wine. Interestingly, they are on average between 1% and 1.5% of a wine.
Exuberant: This term is most often used for young wines that are fresh, lively and showy.
finish — the impression of textures and flavors lingering in the mouth after swallowing wine
flavors — odors perceived in the mouth
foxy — a term that describes the musty odor and flavor of wines made from vitis labrusca, a common North American varietal
fruity — a tasting term for wines that exhibit strong smells and flavors of fresh fruit
Fading: Wines that are fading are drying out and losing their fruit.
Fat: Wines that are fat are usually concentrated with a lot of round textured flavors. This can be a good quality. However, as you will see, flabby wines are not good.
Feminine: Similar to elegant, but lighter in concentration.
Fermage: French term for tenant farming. In modern terms, this is similar to a leasing arrangement.
Fermentation: The process of turning sugars into alcohol by yeast, also known as alcoholic fermentation.
Field Blend: Multiple grape varieties planted in the same vineyard that are usually harvested and vinified at the same time.
Filtered: Filtering is the process of removing solid particles by having the wine move through a filter.
Fining: Fining is done to remove various particles in a wine which would render the wine unclear or cloudy. Agents used for fining include egg whites, clay and dried blood.
Finesse: Wines with finesse are elegant.
Fining:The process of clarifying a wine that is often done with egg whites or gelatin to separate the sediment so that it is can be easily removed.
Firm: Wines that are firm are tannic and structured.
Flabby: Flabby wines are low in acidity and lie there in your mouth. They are heavy and not fun to taste.
Fleshy: Fleshy wines are full bodied concentrated and round or opulent textures.
Flight: When more than one wine is poured at the same time.
Full-bodied: Wines that fill your palate with texture and intensity are typically full-bodied. In many cases, these have higher tannin levels, more alcohol, and are darker in color. Common words for full-bodied wines include rich, opulent, intense, structured, and muscular.
Flowering: The time of year that the initial floral blossoms form on the grape vine.
Fortified Wine:Fortified wine is produced by the addition of brandy or other spirits.
Forward: Forward denotes a young wine that is open or accessible to tasters.
Fruit-forward: This is used when describing the dominant notes of fruit in the nose and mouth. It doesn’t necessarily mean the wine is sweet, just that there’s noticeable fruit characters. Think fresh strawberries, raspberry jam, baked apples, etc.
Fresh: Freshness is a good quality. It comes from acidity. Wine with ample freshness have lift.
Fruit Set: The time of year when the fertilized flowers morph into small grape bunches.
Fruity: Fruity wines are often simple wines. This is not a positive attribute because good wines near more than fruit.
herbaceous — a tasting term denoting odors and flavors of fresh herbs (e.g., basil, oregano, rosemary, etc.)
Gamey: Wines with gamey aromas smell of meat, barnyards and, or earth.
Glycerin: Glycerin, produced during fermentation adds to the texture of a wine and its body.
Gravity Cellars: Gentle method for moving wine without using pumps and only using the force of gravity.
Green: Green wines are produced from unripe grapes. They display vegatal characteristics.
Green Harvest: Green harvesting is when a grower removes unripe grapes to help lower yields and increase the concentration for the remaining grapes.
Hard: Wines that are hard have rough tannins often with high acidity.
Herbaceous: Herbaceous is like hot chili peppers. Herbaceous wines smell of herbs. A little is nice, too much and the wine is taken over by the herbal qualities and loses its sense of fruit.
Hollow: Hollow wines are missing the middle between the first sensation of flavor, the attack and the finish. They lack fruit.
Honeyed: A common trait in sweet wine whites which have a honey character.
Hot: A defect in wine. Heat is noted when too much alcohol for the style of wine has been produced.
hot — a description for wine that is high in alcohol
Ice Wine: Low alcohol sweet wine made from frozen grapes.
Intensity: Intensity in wine is a good thing that takes place when ample flavor keeps the taster focused.
Jammy: Jammy wines are extremely ripe at their best, and over ripe at their worst. they taste and smell of scents of jam and can contain hints of raisins or prunes.
Late Harvest: Late Harvest wines are sweet wines produced from grapes that are allowed to over ripen on the vine.
Lean: Lean wines are not concentrated and they have hard edges.
Lees: The by production of the fermentation that is created from the seeds, stems, pulp, yeast cells and tartrates.
Legs: The clear, viscous tears that run down the side of your glass after swirling your wine. The tears or legs are formed from the glycerin in the wine. This along with color are the first two things a taster notices in a wine.
Length: The amount of time the flavor sensations remain in your mouth and on your palate after you have swallowed the wine.
Lift: The refreshing sensation offered from a wine. Lift comes from acidity. Without lift, a wine would feel fat and flabby on your palate.
Linear: Linear wines offer flavors that remain on the same path and do not change. For example, in the mouth, a dark fruited wine will not change in flavor to red berries.
Lively: Similar to lift, showing freshness in its character.
Long: The longer the flavors and aromatics remain in your senses, the better the wine.
Light-Bodied: This means the wine is lighter in overall body (weight, viscosity). It may seem delicate, subtle, lean, or racy in your mouth. Generally, light-bodied wines will have less alcohol and tannin, with higher acidity.
Lush: Lush wines are rich, opulent, glycerin filled and often sexy!
length — the amount of time that flavors persist in the mouth after swallowing wine; a lingering sensation
malic acid — one of the three predominate acids in grapes. Tart-tasting malic acid occurs naturally in a number of fruits, including, apples, cherries, plums, and tomatoes.
Maceration: Time during vinification when the grapes, seeds, skins, pulp and stems allow their materials to be extracted, adding color, flavor, tannins and raw material to the wine.
Masculine: Strong, powerful, concentrated, tannic wines.
Mature: A mature wine has aged to the point in time that all its elements come together; tannins, fruit and acid. At this time, the wine has also taken on secondary aromas and flavors.
Medium Bodied: Term for wines lacking the same level of concentration found in full bodied wines.
Micro-Vinification: Wines made using micro vinification are barrel fermented. This term is used when red wines are vinified in barrel.
Mid-Palate: The mid-palate is the middle of the wine tasting sensation that takes place after the initial taste and the finish. This is the point in time where the majority of the flavors are released and experienced.
Minerality: This aroma or flavor comes from grapes gown in intense, rocky, mineral laden soils. The sensation is of crushed rocks, stone or cement. This is a unique and desirable quality.
Monocepage: This term describes a wine made from only one specific grape varietal.
Monopole: Wine that are monopoles come from a single vineyard.
Mouth-Feel: The textural sensation that takes place when drinking wine such as smooth, velvety, dry, rough.
Mouth-Filling: Concentrated wines with enough volume to take up what feels like your entire mouth with flavor.
Must: Freshly pressed juice, seeds, stems, skins and sometimes stems.
Musty: Old wines from bottles can show musty flavors. Corked wines can be moldy as well.
malolactic fermentation — a secondary fermentation in which the tartness of malic acid in wine is changed into a smooth, lactic sensation. Wines described as “buttery” or “creamy” have gone through “malo”.
mature — ready to drink
mouth-feel — how a wine feels on the palate; it can be rough, smooth, velvety, or furry
must — unfermented grape juice including seeds, skins, and stems
Nervous: Nervous wines offer higher levels of acidity and brighter flavors. Similar to racy or nervy.
Nose: This common term is used in the same way as perfume or aromatics.
oak/oaky — tasting term denoting smells and flavors of vanilla, baking spices, coconut, mocha or dill caused by barrel-aging
oenology // enology — the science of wine and winemaking
open — tasting term signifying a wine that is ready to drink
Open: Open refers to young wines that display their character and flavors early. The opposite of closed.
Open Top Fermenters: The same vat or tank as the traditional vessel used for vinification, but lacking a permanent top, so that the vessel remains open. This is mostly for red wines.
Opulent: Opulent wines offer sensuous textures and richness. This is highly desirable.
Overripe: Overripe is a misused term. This is because people’s perceptions of ripeness seem to vary. Overripe wines smell of prunes, raisins, cola and other scents.
Oxidized: Oxidized wines have experienced too much air. They can become brown or bricky in color.
Perfume: All wines have perfume. Wines with bottle age develop secondary, non fruit aromas.
pH: Term of measure for acidity in a wine. Wines with high pH have low acidity. Wines with low pH have high acidity.
Pigeage: A winemaking technique of punching down the cap of grape skins that forms during fermentation.
Plonk: An inexpensive, moderate to poor wine without much character.
Plush: Plush wines feel polished, rich, opulent or supple in the mouth.
Polished: Wines that are polished are soft, silky, elegant and round, this comes from very ripe and refined tannins.
Ponderous: A big, powerful, very concentrated wine.
Pop and Pour: Common method of opening a wine bottle by the act of simply removing the cork and pouring the wine.
Powerful: Powerful wines are concentrated with raw material, flavor and tannin.
Pruney: Wines produced from grapes that are too ripe and become overly jammy, are said to be pruney.
Pure: Purity is a good thing in a wine, and hard to find. Wine with purity allow the true expression of the fruit to come through. Think of tasting a sweet, ripe berry off the vine.
Quaffer: Usually inexpensive wine without faults that is easy to drink on release.
Racking: During the racking process, the wine is moved from one barrel to a different barrel to add air and to allow for the removal of any sediment.
Racy: Racy wines offer higher levels of acidity.
Reduction: A wine that has just completed fermentation requires finished oxygen to develop correctly. Oak barrels are the perfect vessel, as they allow the correct amount of oxygen to enter the wine. When the wine does not receive ample oxygen, it becomes reduced. The lack of oxygen allows sulfur into the wine, resulting in a wine that smells dirty, like rotten vegetables or worse.
Residual Sugar: Residual Sugar or RS is the unfermented sugar that remains in a finished wine.
Rich: Wines that are rich display ample texture, body and flavor, along with a long finish.
Ripe: A ripe wine is one that is produced wine is ripe when its grapes have reached the optimum level of maturity.
Round: Round wines feel opulent in your mouth. This trait can come from low acid wines and wines produced from fruit when the tannins were allowed to fully ripen.
Rustic: Generally speaking, rustic wines are rough textured, old school wines that are often austere and stern. However, rustic can be more of a simple, country wine with character as well. The term can take on slightly different meanings, depending on the appellation.
rough — the tactile “coarse” sensation one experiences with very astringent wines
sec — French word for “dry”
Sommelier — A wine butler; also used to denote a certified wine professional.
spicy — a tasting term used for odors and flavors reminiscent of black pepper, bay leaf, curry powder, baking spices, oregano, rosemary, thyme, saffron or paprika found in certain wines
structure — an ambiguous tasting term that implies harmony of fruit, alcohol, acidity, and tannins
Seamless: When a taster experiences a wine that moves from the first taste, to the mid palate through to the finish without a break between the sensations and all the elements of the wine are in balance.
Secondary Frementation: The term for on the positive side, what takes place to change still wine into Champagne or sparkling wine On the negative side, this can also take place in the bottle due to remaining sugars and will ruin the wine.
Secondary Aromas: This is what happens to the scent of wine once it matures. It develops tertiary, non fruit aromatics like truffles, tobacco, leather, tar, cedar and spice.
Sediment: Natural occurrence as wines age that is formed with the tannins, pigments and other materials bond together. This is the mark of a wine that is maturing. Sediment will not harm you, but its bitter taste is not going to help your wine. You can remove the sediment by decanting.
Sexy: Sexy is good in life, and in wine. Sexy wines are sensuous, silky and opulent. They are usually rich wines as well.
Short: The opposite of long. A wine that is short has on length in the finish.
Silky: Similar to velvety, but perhaps a little lighter. Silky wines feel polished in your mouth.
Simple: Simple wines lack complexity beyond their initial fruit character.
Single Vineyard: Wines produced from grapes grown in one single vineyard, instead of multiple vineyard sites.
Single Blind: In a single blind tasting, the tasters know the names of the wines, or the type of wine in the tasting but not their specific order.
Slow oxidation: This technique involves removing the capsule and cork and allowing the wine to sit for hours before opening. This does nothing for the development of a wine.
Smoky: Some wines offer scents of smoke, fire or burnt aromas. This happens either because of the char in the barrels, the soil or the grapes.
Smooth: Wines that are smooth, feel soft on your palate. They transition from the beginning to the middle through to the end, with that a smooth texture.
Soft: Soft wines are round, elegantly textured and can be low in acidity.
Sorting: Sorting is the last step before fermentation. During sorting, the wine maker removes all the unripe grapes and other unwanted material. Sorting can be done by hand or with new, optical sorting machines or other techniques.
Savory: Also known as earthy, rustic. Savory indicates there are more earthy or herbaceous notes with less dominant fruit characteristics. Think kalamata olives, dried herbs, leather, game, or tobacco.
Spicy: Wines often smell like different spices ranging from pepper, to cinnamon, to spice or cloves.
Structure: Structure is created by all the components that go into a wine, fruit, acid, tannin, sugar and alcohol.
Supple: Supple wines are rich, plush and soft in the mouth.
Sweet Wine: Sweet wines are red or white wines which have varying degrees of residual sugar remaining.
Tannin: Tannins which are extracted from the grape skins and stems, coupled with acidity and alcohol, are the backbone of a wine and one of the key components to a long life. Tannins need to be ripe for a wine to feel good in your mouth, Unripe tannins can make your mouth feel dry or make the wine seem hard.
Tart: Tart wines are produced from unripe fruit and, or fruit that is overly acidic.
Tartaric Acid: The small, harmless crystals found at the bottom of a wine bottle. The crystals are harmless, odorless and lack flavor. They occur naturally when some wines age.
Tertiary Aromas: The same as secondary aromas. This is what happens to the scent of wine once it matures. It develops secondary, non fruit aromatics like truffles, tobacco, leather, tar, cedar and spice.
Tight: Tight is similar to closed in that the wine is holding its personality and positive traits in reserve.
Typicity: Wines with typicity are said to either express the grape varietal, the terroir of an appellatio or the typical wine making techniques of that region.
tannins — the phenolic compounds in wines that leave a bitter, dry, and puckery feeling in the mouth
tartaric acid — the principal acid in grapes, tartaric acid promotes flavor and aging in wine
texture — a tasting term describing how wine feels on the palate
typicity — a tasting term that describes how well a wine expresses the characteristics inherent to the variety of grape
ullage — the empty space left in bottles and barrels as a wine evaporates
Velvety: This term can be exchanged with silk, lush or plush to describe wines with opulent texture.
Veraison: Term for when the grapes change color from green to deep purple for red wines and when the grapes change from green to more of a yellow tone for white wine grapes during the growing season.
Vertical Tasting: A vertical tasting consists of the same wines from a single producer, winery or vineyard in multiple vintages.
Vibrant: Wines that are fresh, lively, energetic, with good acidity, but also rich with depth.
Vigneron: French term for a wine maker or wine grower.
Vin: French term for wine.
Vintage: The specific year the grapes were harvested in.
Viscous: Viscous wines are thick, rich and concentrated and display an unctuous quality.
Viticulture: The study and, or act of grape growing.
Volatile: A volatile wine smells of vinegar due to an abundance of acetic bacteria. In some wines, a tiny dose can be seen as a positive trait. In large amounts this easily ruins a wine.
vinification — the process of making wine
vinology — the scientific study of wines and winemaking. Also, the website for the Wine School of Philadelphia.
vitis vinifera — the species of wine that comprises over 99% of the world’s wine
vintage — the year a wine is bottled. Also, the yield of wine from a vineyard during a single season.
weight — similar to “body”, the sensation when a wine feels thick or rich on the palate
wine — fermented juice from grapes
Whole Bunch Vinification: Method of fermenting the grapes with the stems still attached.
Woody: Woody wines are oaky. They feature strong, often overwhelming scents of vanilla, coffee or smoke. They can also feel dry in the mouth. This is a flaw.
Yeast: Yeast helps the process of converting sugar to alcohol during the fermentation process.
yield — the productivity of a vineyard
young — an immature wine that is usually bottled and sold within a year of its vintage. Wines meant to be drunk “young” are noted for their fresh and crisp flavors.